IoT Protocols Based Fog/Cloud over High Traffic



Networks Engineering Department, College of Information Engineering, Al-Nahrain University, Iraq



The Internet of Things (IoT) becomes the future of a global data field in which the embedded devices communicate with each other, exchange data and making decisions through the Internet. IoT could improve the quality of life in smart cities, but a massive amount of data from different smart devices could slow down or crash database systems. In addition, IoT data transfer to Cloud for monitoring information and generating feedback that will lead to high delay in infrastructure level. Fog Computing can help by offering services closer to edge devices. In this paper, we propose an efficient system architecture to mitigate the problem of delay. We provide performance analysis like response time, throughput and packet loss for MQTT (Message Queue Telemetry Transport) and HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) protocols based on Cloud or Fog servers with large volume of data from emulated traffic generator working alongside one real sensor . We implement both protocols in the same architecture, with low cost embedded devices to local and Cloud servers with different platforms. The results show that HTTP response time is 12.1 and 4.76 times higher than MQTT Fog and Cloud based located in the same geographical area of the sensors respectively. The worst case in performance is observed when the Cloud is public and outside the country region. The results obtained for throughput shows that MQTT has the capability to carry the data with available bandwidth and lowest percentage of packet loss. We also prove that the proposed Fog architecture is an efficient way to reduce latency and enhance performance in Cloud based IoT.


[1] Ferrag, M. A., Derdour, M., Mukherjee, M., Derhab, A., Maglaras, L., & Janicke, H. (2018). Blockchain Technologies for the Internet of Things: Research Issues and Challenges. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 1-1. doi:10.1109/jiot.2018.2882794

[2] Al-Joboury, I. M., & Al-Hemiary, E. H. (2017). Internet of Things (IoT): Readme. Qalaai Zanist Scientific Journal, 2(2), 343-358. doi:10.25212/lfu.qzj.2.2.35

[3] Krasniqi, X. (2016). Internet of Things: From applications, challenges and standardization to Industry implementations. International Journal of Business & Technology, 4(2). doi:10.33107/ijbte.2016.4.2.03

[4] Shariatmadari, H., Iraji, S., & Jäntti, R. (2017). From Machine-to-Machine Communications to Internet of Things: Enabling Communication Technologies. From Internet of Things to Smart Cities, 3-34. doi:10.1201/9781315154503-1

[5] Al-Joboury, I. M., & Hemiary, E. H. (2018). Internet of Things Architecture Based Cloud for Healthcare. Iraqi Journal of Information & Communications Technology, 1(1), 18-26. doi:10.31987/ijict.1.1.7

[6] Mishra, D. P., Kumar, S., & Ashu, A. (2018). Internet of Things: A Survey on Enabling Technologies, Application and Standardization. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3170749

[7] Stojmenovic, I., & Wen, S. (2014). The Fog Computing Paradigm: Scenarios and Security Issues. Proceedings of the 2014 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems. doi:10.15439/2014f503

[8] Mahmud, R., Kotagiri, R., & Buyya, R. (2017). Fog Computing: A Taxonomy, Survey and Future Directions. Internet of Things Internet of Everything, 103-130. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-5861-5_5

[9] Al-Joboury, I., & Al-Hemiary, E. (2018). IoTF2CDM-LB: IoT Based Fog-to-Cloud and Datain-Motion Architectures with Load Balancing. EAI Endorsed Transactions on Internet of Things, 4(13), 155332. doi:10.4108/eai.6-4-2018.155332

[10] Aazam, M., & Huh, E. (2014). Fog Computing and Smart Gateway Based Communication for Cloud of Things. 2014 International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud. doi:10.1109/ficloud.2014.83

[11] Lee, S., Kim, H., Hong, D., & Ju, H. (2013). Correlation analysis of MQTT loss and delay according to QoS level. The International Conference on Information Networking 2013 (ICOIN). doi:10.1109/icoin.2013.6496715

[12] Kim, G., Park, J., & Chung, K. (2018). Prioritybased Multi-level MQTT System to Provide Differentiated IoT Services. Journal of KIISE, 45(9), 969-974. doi:10.5626/jok.2018.45.9.969 [13] Masek, P., Hosek, J., Zeman, K., Stusek, M., Kovac, D., Cika, P., . . . Kröpfl, F. (2016). Implementation of True IoT Vision: Survey on Enabling Protocols and Hands-On Experience. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 12(4), 8160282. doi:10.1155/2016/8160282

[14] Al-Joboury, I. M., & Al-Hemiary, E. H. (2017). F2CDM: Internet of Things for Healthcare Network Based Fog-to-Cloud and Data-in-Motion Using MQTT Protocol. In: Sabir E., García Armada A., Ghogho M., Debbah M. (eds) Ubiquitous Networking. UNet 2017. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 368-379. doi:10.1007/978-3319-68179-5_32

[15] Information technology. Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) v3.1.1. (n.d.). doi:10.3403/30328634

[16] Belshe, M., & Peon, R. (2015). Hypertext Transfer Protocol Version 2 (HTTP/2). doi:10.17487/rfc7540

[17] Alrawais, A., Alhothaily, A., Hu, C., & Cheng, X. (2017). Fog Computing for the Internet of Things: Security and Privacy Issues. IEEE Internet Computing, 21(2), 34-42. doi:10.1109/mic.2017.37

[18] Dastjerdi, A. V., & Buyya, R. (2016). Fog Computing: Helping the Internet of Things Re
alize Its Potential. Computer, 49(8), 112-116. doi:10.1109/mc.2016.245

[19] Che, X., & Maag, S. (2014). Testing protocols in Internet of Things by a formal passive technique. Science China Information Sciences, 57(3), 1-13. doi:10.1007/s11432-014-5068-x [20] Kurniawan, K. J. , Lim, C. and Eng, K. I, (2015). XMPP Performance Analysis using large volume traffic from honeypot sensor. The International Conference on Innovation, Enterpreneurship, and Technology (ICONIET 2015).

[21] Babovic, Z. B., Protic, J., & Milutinovic, V. (2016). Web Performance Evaluation for Internet of Things Applications. IEEE Access, 4, 69746992. doi:10.1109/access.2016.2615181

[22] Slabicki, M., & Grochla, K. (2016). Performance evaluation of CoAP, SNMP and NETCONF protocols in fog computing architecture. NOMS 2016 - 2016 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. doi:10.1109/noms.2016.7503010

[23] Mijovic,S.,Shehu,E.,&Buratti,C.(2016).Comparing application layer protocols for the Internet of Things via experimentation. 2016 IEEE 2nd International Forum on Research and Technologies for Society and Industry Leveraging a Better Tomorrow (RTSI). doi:10.1109/rtsi.2016.7740559

[24] Triawan, M. A., Hindersah, H., Yolanda, D., & Hadiatna, F. (2016). Internet of things using publish and subscribe method cloudbased application to NFT-based hydroponic system. 2016 6th International Conference on System Engineering and Technology (ICSET). doi:10.1109/icsengt.2016.7849631

[25] Yokotani, T., & Sasaki, Y. (2016). Comparison with HTTP and MQTT on required network resources for IoT. 2016 International Conference on Control, Electronics, Renewable Energy and Communications (ICCEREC). doi:10.1109/iccerec.2016.78149