Document Type : Research Article



The wireless communication with delivering variety of services to users is growing rapidly in recent years. The third generation of cellular networks (3G), and local wireless networks (WLAN) are the two widely used technologies in wireless networks. 3G networks have the capability of covering a vast area; while, WLAN networks provide higher transmission rates with less coverage. Since the two networks have complementary properties, some attempts are made for their integration which could lead to an advantageous heterogeneous network. In such a heterogeneous network, provision of services like authentication, billing and quality of service are essential. In this article, a new mutual authentication protocol, namely, Non-Reputation Billing Protocol (NRBP) is proposed based on extensible authentication protocols. This authentication scheme provides a non-repudiation property for the billing problem. The proposed scheme is analyzed based on different security features and computation overhead. In comparison with previous approaches, this protocol contains all the considered security parameters. Moreover, the computation overhead of this protocol is less than other schemes.


[1] [1] Institute of Electrical and Electronics. "Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications," ISO/IEC 8802-11:1999(E), ANSI/IEEE Std. 802.11, 1999,
[2] [2] Institute European Telecommunications Standards., "Requirements and Architectures for Interworking Between HIPERLAN/2 and 3rd Generation Cellular Systems," TR 101 957, Aug. 2001,
[3] M. Zivkovi, M. M. Buddhikot, K. Lagerberg and J. V. Bemme, "Authentication Across Heterogeneous Networks", Bell Labs Technical Journal, pages 3956, 2005.
[4] 3GPP TR 22.934, V2.0.0 Feasibility study on 3GPP system to Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) internetworking (Release 6), 2004.
[5] C. D. Laat, G. Gross, L. Gommans, J. Vollbrecht and J. Vollbrecht, "Generic AAA Architecture", RFC 2903, August 2000.
[6] L. Blank, J. Vollvrecht, "PPP Extensilble Authentication Protocol (EAP)", RFC 2284, IETF, March 1998.
[7] B. Aboba, L. Blunk, J. Vollbrecht, J. Carleson and H. Levkowetz, "Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)", RFC 3748, June 2004.
[8] J. Arkko and H. Havcrinen, "Extensible Authentication Protocol Method for 3rd Generation Authentication and Key Agreement (EAP-AKA)". RFC 4187, January 2006.
[9] P. Prasithsangaree and P. V. Krishnamurthy, "A New Authentication Mechanism for Loosely Coupled 3G-WLAN Integrated Network", Proceeding of 59th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC), vol. 5, pp. 2998-3003, May 2004.
[10] P. Funk and S. Blake-Wilson, "EAP Tunneled TLS Authentication Protocol Version 1 (EAP-TTLSv1)", Internet Draft, Work in Progress,<draft-funk-eap-ttls-v1-01.txt>, March 2006.
[11] H. Andersson, S. Josefsson, G. Zorn, D. Simon and A. Palekar, "Protected EAP Protocol (PEAP) Version 2", draft-josefsson-pppext-eap-tls-eap-08.txt, July 2004.
[12] Ali A. Shidhani and Victor C. M. Leung, "Local fast re-authentication for 3G-WLAN interworking", Security and Communication Networks, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 309-323, 2008.
[13] Yuh-Min Tseng, Chou-Chen Yang and JiannHaur Su, "Authentication and Billing Protocols for the Integration of WLAN and 3G Networks," Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 351-366, June 2004.
[14] Constantinos F. Grecas, Sotirios I. Maniatis and Iakovos S. Venieris, "Introduction of the Asymmetric Cryptography in GSM, GPRS, UMTS, and Its Public Key Infrastructure Integration", Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 145-150, April 2003.
[15] M. Shi, X. Shen, J. W. Mark, D. Zhao and Y. Jiang, "User authentication and undeniable billing support for agent-based roaming service in WLAN/cellular integrated mobile networks",
Computer Networks, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 16931702, June 2008.
[16] M. Lee, G. Kim, S. Park, S. Jun, J. Nah and O. Song, "Efficient 3G/WLAN Interworking Techniques for Seamless Roaming Services with Location-Aware Authentication", IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, LNCS 3462, pp. 370381, 2005.
[17] M. Shin, J. Ma and W. A. Arbaugh, "The Design of Efficient Internetwork Authentication for Ubiquitous Wireless Communications", Technical Report CS-TR-4617, Digital Repository at the University of Maryland, January 2006.
[18] K. Sethom, H. Afifi and G. Pujolle, "Secure and Seamless Mobility Support in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks", IEEE GLOBECOM, vol. 6, pp. 3407-3412, December 2005.
[19] Y. Tseng, "USIM-based EAP-TLS authentication protocol for wireless local area networks", Computer Standards & Interfaces, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 128136, January 2009.
[20] B. Aboba, M. Beadles, J. Arkko and P. Eronen, "The Network Access Identifier", Network Working Group, RFC 4282, December 2005.
[21] A. Mishra, M. Shin and W. A. Arbaugh, "Proactive Key Distribution using Neighbor Graphs", IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 26-36, February 2004.
[22] H. Kwon, K. Cheon, K. Roh and A. Park, "USIM based authentication test-bed for UMTS-WLAN handover.", In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Barcelona, Spain, April 2006.
[23] A. A. Shidhani and V. C. M. Leung, "Pre- Authentication Schemes for UMTS-WLAN Interworking", EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2009, pp. 1-16, 2009.
[24] G. Kambourakis, A. N. Rouskas and S. Gritzalis, "Advanced SSL/TLS-based authentication for secure WLAN-3G internetworking", IEE Communication Magazines, vol. 151, no. 5, pp. 501-506, October 2004.
[25] H. Dobbertin, "The status of MD5 after a Recent Attack", In CryptoBytes, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 16, 1996.
[26] J. Nechavatal, Report on the Development of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), NIST, Oct. 2000.
[27] C. Ntantogian and C. Xenakis, "One-Pass EAP-AKA Authentication in 3G-WLAN Integrated Networks", Wireless Press Communication, vol. 48, pp. 569584, 2009.
[28] X. Li, X. Lu, J. Ma, Z. Xu and Y. Park, "Authentications and Key Management in 3G-WLAN Interworking", Mobile Network Application, vol. 16, pp. 394407, 2011.
[29] Y. Deng, G. Wang and J. Cao, Practical Unified Authentication for 3G-WLAN Interworking, Journal of Information & Computational Science, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 19912000, 2012.
[30] M.L. Brereton, "Ewe Virtual Machine", Retrieved from