Document Type : Research Article


Department of Information Technology Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran


Today, passive RFID tags have many applications in various fields such as healthcare, transportation, asset management, and supply chain management. In some of these applications, a group of tags need to prove they are present in the same place at the same time. To solve this problem, many protocols have been proposed so far, and each of them has been able to solve some security and performance problems, but unfortunately, many of these protocols have security vulnerabilities or do not have the necessary performance to run on passive RFID tags. In this study, a secure and lightweight protocol for RFID tags grouping proof called LSGPP is proposed. In this protocol, the reader is an untrusted entity, in other words, the protocol is secure even if the reader is hijacked by an attacker. This study shows that the LSGPP protocol is secure against tracking, eavesdropping, replay, concurrency, impersonation, desynchronization, denial of service (DoS), proof forgery, message integrity, man-in-the-middle, secret disclosure, denial of proof (DoP), and unlinkability attacks, and supports anonymity and forward secrecy features. Also, in this study, the notion of RFID reader compromised attack is introduced, and it is shown that, unlike its predecessors, the LSGPP protocol is also secure against this attack. Also, using the Proverif tool, it is shown that the proposed protocol provides confidentiality and authentication features. The LSGPP protocol uses lightweight operations affordable for passive RFID tags and is shown to be compliant with the EPC C1G2 standard.


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