Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 Electronics Research Institute, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

3 Electronic Research Institute, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) have emerged as part of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), offering the potential to enhance passenger and driver safety, as well as driving conditions. However, VANETs face significant security challenges and various attacks due to their wireless nature and operation in free space. Mutual authentication between vehicles and RSUs is one of the most, if not the most, critical security requirements in VANETs. In this process, maintaining resource authenticity, data authenticity and preserving users' privacy, are key concerns.
This paper proposes a pseudonym-based authentication scheme for VANETs, built upon existing approaches. The proposed scheme not only ensures the aforementioned security requirements but also meets critical security requirements for the mentioned process in VANETs, such as non-reputation, unlinkability, and unforgeability. Furthermore, the suggested scheme effectively detects and mitigates the Sybil attack in mutual authentication between vehicles and RSU, a well-known and common threat. By comparing the efficiency and security characteristics of the proposed scheme with other existing approaches, it becomes evident that the suggested scheme surpasses previously proposed methods.


[1] Sagheer Ahmed Jan, Noor Ul Amin, Mohamed Othman, Mazhar Ali, Arif Iqbal Umar, and Abdul Basir. A survey on privacy-preserving authentication schemes in vanets: attacks, challenges and open issues. IEEE Access, 9:153701–153726, 2021.
[2] Azlan Awang, Khaleel Husain, Nidal Kamel, and Sonia Aissa. Routing in vehicular ad-hoc networks: A survey on single-and cross-layer design techniques, and perspectives. IEEE Access, 5:9497–9517, 2017.
[3] Rakesh Shrestha, Rojeena Bajracharya, Anish P Shrestha, and Seung Yeob Nam. A new type of blockchain for secure message exchange in vanet. Digital communications and networks, 6(2):177–186, 2020.
[4] Pravin Mundhe, Shekhar Verma, and S Venkatesan. A comprehensive survey on authentication and privacy-preserving schemes in vanets. Computer Science Review, 41:100411, 2021.
[5] Sowmya Kudva, Shahriar Badsha, Shamik Sengupta, Ibrahim Khalil, and Albert Zomaya. Towards secure and practical consensus for blockchain based vanet. Information Sciences, 545:170–187, 2021.
[6] Lei Zhang, Mingxing Luo, Jiangtao Li, Man Ho Au, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Tong Chen, and Shengwei Tian. Blockchain based secure data sharing system for internet of vehicles: A position paper. Vehicular Communications, 16:85–93, 2019.
[7] Otto B Piramuthu and Matthew Caesar. Vanet authentication protocols: security analysis and a proposal. The Journal of Supercomputing, 79(2):2153–2179, 2023.
[8] Pandi Vijayakumar, Maria Azees, Victor Chang, Jegatha Deborah, and Balamurugan Balusamy. Computationally efficient privacy preserving authentication and key distribution techniques for vehicular ad hoc networks. cluster computing, 20:2439–2450, 2017.
[9] Shunrong Jiang, Xiaoyan Zhu, and Liangmin Wang. An efficient anonymous batch authentication scheme based on hmac for vanets. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 17(8):2193–2204, 2016.
[10] Arwa Alrawais, Abdulrahman Alhothaily, Bo Mei, Tianyi Song, and Xiaolu Cheng. An efficient revocation scheme for vehicular adhoc networks. Procedia Computer Science, 129:312–318, 2018.
[11] Marcos A Simplicio, Eduardo Lopes Cominetti, Harsh Kupwade Patil, Jefferson E Ricardini, Leonardo TD Ferraz, and Marcos Vinicius M Silva. Privacy-preserving certificate linkage/revocation in vanets without linkage authorities. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 22(6):3326–3336, 2020.
[12] Yimin Wang, Hong Zhong, Yan Xu, Jie Cui, and Ge Wu. Enhanced security identity-based privacy-preserving authentication scheme supporting revocation for vanets. IEEE Systems Journal, 14(4):5373–5383, 2020.
[13] Lei Zhang, Xinyu Meng, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Yuanfei Zhang, and Feifei Dai. Privacy-preserving cloud establishment and data dissemination scheme for vehicular cloud. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 17(3):634–647, 2018.
[14] Jie Cui, Wenyu Xu, Yibo Han, Jing Zhang, and Hong Zhong. Secure mutual authentication with privacy preservation in vehicular ad hoc networks. Vehicular Communications, 21:100200, 2020.
[15] Hongyuan Cheng and Yining Liu. An improved rsu-based authentication scheme for vanet. Journal of Internet Technology, 21(4):1137–1150, 2020.
[16] Mahmood A Al-Shareeda, Mohammed Anbar, Selvakumar Manickam, and Iznan H Hasbullah. A secure pseudonym-based conditional privacy-preservation authentication scheme in vehicular ad hoc networks. Sensors, 22(5):1696, 2022.
[17] Saad Ali Alfadhli, Songfeng Lu, Kai Chen, and Meriem Sebai. Mfspv: A multi-factor secured and lightweight privacy-preserving authentication scheme for vanets. IEEE Access, 8:142858–142874, 2020.
[18] Lili Zhang, Chenming Li, Yueheng Li, Qiaomei Luo, and Rongbo Zhu. Group signature based privacy protection algorithm for mobile ad hoc network. In 2017 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation (ICIA), pages
947–952. IEEE, 2017.
[19] Yi Han, Nuo-Nuo Xue, Bi-Yao Wang, Qi Zhang, Chun-Lei Liu, and Wei-Shan Zhang. Improved dual-protected ring signature for security and privacy of vehicular communications in vehicular ad-hoc networks. IEEE Access, 6:20209–20220,
[20] Ikram Ali, Alzubair Hassan, and Fagen Li. Authentication and privacy schemes for vehicular ad hoc networks (vanets): A survey. Vehicular Communications, 16:45–61, 2019.
[21] Juan Carlos Garcia-Escartin, Vicent Gimeno, and Julio Jos´e Moyano-Fern´andez. Quantum collision finding for homomorphic hash functions. arXiv preprint arXiv:2108.00100, 2021.
[22] Hugo Krawczyk. Lfsr-based hashing and authentication. In Annual International Cryptology Conference, pages 129–139. Springer, 1994.
[23] Young-Sam Kim and Joon Heo. Device authentication protocol for smart grid systems using homomorphic hash. Journal of Communications and Networks, 14(6):606–613, 2012.
[24] Anu S Lal and Reena Nair. Region authority based collaborative scheme to detect sybil attacks in vanet. In 2015 International Conference on Control Communication & Computing India (ICCC), pages 664–668. IEEE, 2015.
[25] Tong Zhou, Romit Roy Choudhury, Peng Ning, and Krishnendu Chakrabarty. P2dap—sybil attacks detection in vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE journal on selected areas in communications, 29(3):582–594, 2011.