Iranian Society of CryptologyThe ISC International Journal of Information Security2008-204515120230101Lightweight Cryptographic S-Boxes Based on Efficient Hardware Structures for Block Ciphers13715115175910.22042/isecure.2022.275268.646ENBahramRashidiAyatollah Boroujerdi University, Deptartment of Electrical Engineering, Ayatollah Boroujerdi University, Boroujerd, Iran.Journal Article20210226In this paper, we present four low-cost substitution boxes (S-boxes) including two 4-bit S-boxes called S1 and S2 and two 8-bit S-boxes called SB<sub>1</sub> and SB<sub>2</sub>, which are suitable for the development of lightweight block ciphers. The 8-bit SB<sub>1</sub> S-box is constructed based on four 4-bit S-boxes, multiplication by constant 0x2 in the finite field F<sub>2<sup>4</sup></sub> , and field addition operations. Also, the proposed 8-bit S-box SB<sub>2</sub> is composed of five permutation blocks, two 4-bit S-boxes S<sub>1</sub> and one 4-bit S-box S<sub>2</sub>, multiplication by constant 0x2, and addition operations in sequence. The proposed structures of the S-box are simple and low-cost. These structures have low area and low critical path delay. The cryptographic strength of the proposed S-boxes is analyzed by studying the properties of S-box such as Nonlinearity, Differential uniformity (DU), Strict avalanche criterion (SAC), Algebraic degree (AD), Differential approximation probability (DAP), and Linear approximation probability (LAP) in SAGE. The hardware results, in 180 nm CMOS technology, show the proposed S-boxes are comparable in terms of security properties, area, delay, and area×delay with most of the famous S-boxes.<br /> <br /><span style="color: #e0e0e0; font-family: 'Linux Biolinum', Belleza, Optima; font-size: 21px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-indent: 13.3333px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #202020; text-decoration-thickness: initial; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;"><br /></span>https://www.isecure-journal.com/article_151759_5361a8c294eb2fe958f61d5116fe4476.pdf